Urinary tract infections are a common health problem, especially in the female population. According to studies, one in five adult women will face this disease in the course of their lives.
Depending on which part of the urinary tract is occupied, we distinguish distal UTI (bladder and urethra infection) and proximal UTI (kidney infection). Infection of the bladder is called cystitis. The bladder is part of the urinary system, which aims to reverse urine. Cystitis occurs if microbial colonization of the urine and tissue invasion occur simultaneously.
What are the cystitis challenges?
The most common triggers of cystitis are bacteria, but infection may also be due to invasion of mycobacteria, fungi, parasites, and more rarely viruses. Convinced, with a representation of 85% of cases of bacterial cystitis, the most common cause is Escherichia coli. The remaining bacterial cystitis is caused by Proteus, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterobacter, Streptococcus spp. etc.
In fungal cystitis, Candida is the most common cause. Infection occurs in a compromised immune system or untreated nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) with recurrent infections.
Cystitis can occur as a result of radiation, the consumption of certain drugs (chemotherapy), in the context of other diseases, when using chemical products such as spermicidal preparations, beverages, etc.
Symptoms and signs of cystitis
The main symptoms and signs of cystitis are:
- Bad smell of urine;
- Mouth urine;
- Nocturia (night urination);
- Frequent urination;
- Moaning small amounts of urine;
- Dysuria (painful / difficult urination);
- Feeling of imperfection;
- Feeling in the lower part of the abdomen;
- Haematuria (blood in urine) in about 30% of cases.
If the infection is not treated, the clinical picture may progress and further severe pain in the weakness, fever, temperature and vomiting. This points to the fact that the infection has spread and has affected the upper parts of the urinary tract – the kidneys.
What are the risk factors?
Urinary tract infections, including cystitis, are more likely to occur in the female sex. The main reason for this is considered to be the anatomy of female urogenital organs. The urethra (a tubular organ through which the urine emerges from the bladder) is short in the woman, and its opening is near the anus. Such anatomical construction and placement allows easy switching of bacteria from the colon to the bladder.
Major risk factors for cystitis in women
Pregnancy. The pressure of uterine growth on structures from the urinary tract increases the risk of bladder infection.
Postmenopause. Due to changes occurring in this age these women have an increased risk of cystitis, such as urinary incontinence, vaginal dryness, urinary retention.
Contraception. By placing certain means of contraception in the female genital organs like the diaphragm, the risk of cystitis increases.
Sexual activity. Bladder infection is also associated with frequent partner changes and increased sexual activity.
Risk factors for cystitis in women and men
Immune system disorder. Certain conditions like HIV, diabetes, malignant diseases affect the immune system, which increases the risk of infections, including cystitis.
Disruption of urine flow. Obstruction of urinary tract caused by renal stones or in men of increased prostate may increase the risk of urinary infection.
Setting the catheter. Urinary catheters are tubular structures, which are used in cases where there is no possibility of urinating naturally. By placing a catheter, it is possible to transport the bacteria directly from the outside to the bladder.
Anatomical anomalies of the urinary tract. Anatomical anomalies such as vesico-ureteric reflux are often associated with the onset of cystitis.
To prove urinary tract infection, it is necessary to take a sample of urine and to do a biochemical examination of urine and urine culture.
In order not to obtain false positive results and to avoid contamination from extra urinal sources, it is of utmost importance that the proper collection of the sample is done.
HOW DO YOU READ AN UREA EXAMPLE?
It is best to take the sample in the morning, after becoming full bladder (first morning urine).
Follow these steps:
- Take a sterile cup.
- Thoroughly wash your hands.
Thoroughly wash the urogenital area. In women, it is necessary to wash well the vagina and urethra, after which the genital area is wiped with forward and back strokes (from the vagina to the anus). This prevents contamination of the vagina with bacteria normally found in the anus. In men, it is necessary to draw the skin and wash well the penis.
Open the sterile glass without touching the inner surface.
Start the urination process in the WC cup. When urinating, women should keep their embarrassing lips separated.
After the first jet (the first few seconds of the urination process), urinate into the sterile glass without stopping with urination. About 60 ml of urine is needed.
Finish with the urine in the toilet.
- Close the sterile glass.
- Wash your hands again.
In certain cases for diagnosis, other studies such as cystoscopy, nasal urotract and intravenous urography are required.
Bacterial cystitis requires antibiotic treatment, and most commonly Sulfamethoxazole / Trimethoprim, Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, etc. In addition to drug treatment, fluid intake is recommended at least 2 liters a day to wet every 2-3 hours